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März 1933 der damalige Reichskanzler ehrfurchtsvoll vor Staatsoberhaupt Paul von Hindenburg und begrüßte den Reichskanzler mit einem Händedruck. [71] The cautiously following Allies also had to cope with booby traps, some exploding a month later. In the west, the Germans were hemorrhaging in the battles of Verdun and the Somme. 1851) and Bernhard (b. But he was not, in truth, a man of tradition...As a military commander and later as Germany's head of state, Hindenburg broke virtually every bond he entered into. At this time he was especially curious about the eight man units,[55] which he regarded as " the greatest evidence of the confidence which we placed in the moral and mental powers of our army, down to its smallest unit. Hitler had a plebiscite held on 19 August 1934, in which the German people were asked if they approved of Hitler taking the office of Führer. Muscles tensed, nerves steeled, eyes front! April 1932 wurde HINDENBURG im zweiten Wahlgang mit absoluter Mehrheit wiedergewählt. One-third of the opposing Russian First Army were casualties in the first five hours. 2 Die politische Entwicklung 2.1 Paul von Hindenburg (2. After the elections, Brüning continued to govern largely through Article 48; his government was kept afloat by the Social Democrats who voted against canceling his Article 48 bills in order to avoid another election that could only benefit the Nazis and the Communists. [4] During the decisive Battle of Königgrätz he was briefly knocked unconscious by a bullet that pierced his helmet and creased the top of his skull. (He was more upset by Ludendorff's refusal to have any contact at the ceremony.) The strike led to a Bolshevik uprising that was put down forcefully. Their success was dazzling. As his replacement, Schleicher wanted Groener, whose chief-of-staff he had been late in the war. The far right detested Stresemann for promoting friendly relations with the victors. The British and Arabs broke through in September, capturing Damascus. [171], Hindenburg, who had always hated the Social Democrats, rejected Schäffer's appeal, saying that the SPD were "traitors" who had "stabbed the Fatherland in the back" in 1918, and who could never belong to the volksgemeinschaft. In a month, he defeated the Romanian invaders at Hermannstadt and then in November thrust into Romania through passes in the Carpathian Mountains, while Mackensen crossed the Danube to cut off their retreat, but the Romanians moved swiftly, they and their Russian reinforcements formed a defensive line in Moldova after Bucharest fell on 6 December 1916. In 1924 the economy was shored up by the reduction in reparation payments in the Dawes Plan with loans from American banks. In der Zeit der Weimarer Republik übte er ab 1925 das Amt des Reichspräsidenten aus. Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg ist als derjenige Staatsmann in die Weltgeschichte eingegangen, der Hitler 1933 zum Reichskanzler ernannt hat. The Western Front ran southward from Belgium until near Laon, where it turned east to pass Verdun before again turning south to end at the Swiss Border. [7] After the French surrender he watched from afar the suppression of the Paris Commune. Groener was now even more unpopular to the right because he had banned wearing party uniforms in public. Hindenburg detested Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg for dragging his feet about total and submarine warfare. [143] Nonetheless he supported the government's policy, so on 1 December 1925 the Locarno Treaties were signed, a significant step in restoring Germany's position in Europe. They were responsible for 108,800 km2 (42,000 mi2) of conquered Russian territory, which was home to three million people and became known as Ober Ost. The Russians withdrew until they sheltered behind the Narev River. By 1916, Hindenburg’s popularity had risen to the point that he replaced General Erich von Falkenhayn as Chief of the Great General Staff. Hindenburg created a new Fourteenth Army with ten Austro-Hungarian and seven German divisions and enough airplanes to control the air, commanded by Otto von Below. The president also enjoyed a shooting preserve. Hindenburg also hoped that civilian morale would crumble because Paris was being shelled from by naval guns mounted on rail carriages 120 km (75 mi) away, but he underestimated French resiliency. Paul von Hindenburg: Vereidigung und politische Praxis als Reichspräsident - Gesch. In retaliation, Falkenhayn reassigned some of Hindenburg's forces to a new army group under Prince Leopold of Bavaria and transferring Ludendorff to a new joint German and Austro-Hungarian Southern Army. Given that Hindenburg was still a popular war hero and a revered figure in the Reichswehr, there was little doubt that the Reichswehr would side with Hindenburg if he ever decided to sack Hitler. Militär, Politiker. The British captured Baghdad on 11 March. Now the Russians signed also. Hindenburg agreed to this request. Brüning recalled that once the president came to meet him at the railway station, but failed to recognize him. Unemployment was still soaring. Article 53 allowed the president to appoint the chancellor. Möglich erscheint, daß von Papen der Hindenburg Testament entwarf Hitler irgendwie entgegenkommen wollte. On 12 August Army Group von Boehn was created to firm up the defenses in the Somme sector. The Ja (Yes) vote amounted to 90% of the vote. Determined to win, he decided to expand the salient pointing toward Paris to strip more defenders from Flanders. Around the country Nazi stormtroopers were running riot, attacking their political opponents. Januar 2020 Feldherr und Reichspräsident Berlin streicht Hindenburg als Ehrenbürger. Then in July the chancellor permitted the Reichstag to debate a resolution for peace without “annexations or indemnities”. [115] Naturally these subordinates often felt that he did little, even though he was setting the course. After weeks of marching, the Guards attacked the village of Saint Privat (near Metz). The Field Marshal had a high opinion of himself, and he doubtless sincerely believed that he personified a Prussian ‘tradition" of selfless service. When the seven men from the executive committee of the soldiers' council formed at Spa arrived at OHL they were greeted politely by a lieutenant colonel, who acknowledged their leadership. The Italians fled west, too fast to be cut off. The Allied command was dismayed. Januar 1933 zum Kanzler? Im Ersten Weltkrieg übte die von ihm geführte Oberste Heeresleitung von 1916 bis 1918 quasi diktatorisch die Regierungsgewalt aus. Hindenburg was agreeable. A new election had to be held within a month. Bundesarchiv, Bild 183-U0618-0500 /CC-BY-SA 3.0 Für seine Verdienste im Ersten Weltkrieg wurde Paul von Hindenburg durch Kaiser Wilhelm II. Paul von Hindenburg hat Adolf Hitler 1933 zur Macht verholfen. Instead they manned independent Freikorps (modeled on formations used in the Napoleonic wars), supplying them with weapons and equipment. Im Falle einer Umbenennnung des Hindenburgplatzes müßten konsequenterweise auch andere Straßen und Plätze, deren Namensgebungen auf zeitbezogenen Einstellungen und Bewertungen beruhen, in … On 1 September the Eighth Army, led by Oskar von Hutier, attacked; Bruchmüller's bombardment, which included gas and smoke shells, drove the defenders from the far bank east of the city, the Germans crossed in barges and then bridged the river, immediately pressing forward to the Baltic coast, pocketing the defenders of the Riga salient. Er wurde 1847 als Sohn des preußischen Offiziers und Gutsbesitzers Hans Robert Ludwig von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg (1816–1902) und seiner bürgerlichen Ehefrau Luise Schwickart (1825–1893) geboren. He issued a statement urging national unity. Further south Brusilov did better, penetrating a few kilometers into Hungary, but when the front stabilized the Russians faced new fortifications dug and wired on the German pattern. The famed zeppelin Hindenburg that was destroyed by fire in 1937 was named in his honor, as was the Hindenburgdamm, a causeway joining the island of Sylt to mainland Schleswig-Holstein that was built during his time in office. The British were unimpressed: General Charteris, Haig's intelligence chief, wrote to his wife “poor old Hindenburg is sixty-four years of age, and will not do very much.”[48] Conversely, the German War Cabinet was impressed by his swift decision-making. Oktober 1847 in Posen† 02. Graduates entering the army were presented to King William I, who asked for their father's name and rank. Subsequently, On 16 March, Hindenburg authorized Operation Alberich whereby German forces were ordered to move out all able-bodied inhabitants and portable possessions to new line running across the salient's base. During the war he had left the newspaper reporters to Ludendorff, now he was available. Die 1920 gegründete NSDAP war nach militärischen Grundsätzen aufgebaut. [144] He accepted the republic as the mechanism for restoring Germany's position in Europe, though Hindenburg was no Vernunftrepublikaner (republican by reason) because democracy was incompatible with the militaristic volksgemeinschaft (national community) that would unite the people into one for future conflicts.[145]. In the spring of 1916, the Central Powers experienced a military catastrophe in the East that left Germany bearing much of the war effort until the end of hostilities. [9] Schlieffen recommended him as Chief of the General Staff in 1909, but he lost out to Helmuth von Moltke. In the negotiations with the Soviet Government, Hindenburg wanted to retain control of all Russian territory that the Central Powers occupied, with German grand dukes ruling Courland and Lithuania, as well as a large slice of Poland. Der Historiker Dieter Hoffmann hat nun in seinem jüngsten Buch eine Spur verfolgt, die Licht ins Dunkel bringt. *13.07.100 v. Chr. Der ehemalige Reichspräsident Paul von Hindenburg ist nicht mehr Ehrenbürger Berlins. To keep the government in office, Hindenburg pressured Seeckt to resign. Upon Germany's capitulation to the Allies in the November 1918 armistice, Hindenburg relinquished his leadership of the Army High Command before retiring once again from military service in 1919. Papen published an economic recovery plan that almost all of the parties and the labor unions lambasted. Paul von Hindenburg, ehemaliger Reichspräsident. Protecting his warrior image, Hindenburg wrote in his memoir that "the artists were a distraction [with which] we would have preferred to dispense".[186]. The Germans never learned the extent of their enemy's demoralization. Everyone present saw that they took an immediate dislike to each other. To counter the Russians' pending invasion of Silesia, Hindenburg advanced into Poland and occupied the west bank of the Vistula opposite from where Russian forces were mobilizing. * 2. [164] Hindenburg was persuaded to run by the Kamarilla, and supported by the Centre Party, the Deutsche Volkspartei (DVP) and the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), which regarded him as the only hope of defeating Hitler. Oktober wird Ludendorff entlassen: Welche Schwierigkeiten hat Ludendorff mir … Frankel. Ein halbes Jahr später wurde KURT VON SCHLEICHER Reichskanzler. In early February 1933, Papen asked for and received an Article 48 bill signed into law that sharply limited freedom of the press. Most Germans did celebrate his birthday: his present was Neudeck, the ancestral East Prussian estate of the Hindenburgs, purchased with funds from a public subscription. The front in Palestine ran from the Mediterranean to the southern end of the Dead Sea, and the defenders of Baghdad had a flank on the Tigris River. He testified that the German Army had been on the verge of winning the war in the autumn of 1918 and that the defeat had been precipitated by a Dolchstoß ("stab in the back") by disloyal elements on the home front and unpatriotic politicians, quoting an unnamed British general: "The German Army was stabbed in the back." The German Tenth Army besieged Kovno, a Lithuanian city on the Nieman River defended by a circle of forts. To meet the Russians' renewed push into Silesia, Hindenburg moved Ninth Army by rail north to Thorn and reinforced it with two corps from Eighth Army. [98] On 14 October The Austro-Hungarians asked for an armistice in Italy, but the fighting went on. When Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels got wind of it, he not only canceled a scheduled tape-delayed broadcast of the speech, but ordered the seizure of newspapers in which part of the text was printed. Oktober 1847 als Sohn eines preußischen Offiziers und Gutsbesitzers, ROBERT VON BENECKENDORFF UND VON HINDENBURG, und dessen Frau, der Arzttochter LUISE, in Posen geboren.Von 1859 an besuchte er das Gymnasium und wechselte kurze Zeit später zur Kadettenanstalt in Wahlstatt und später nach Berlin. In seinem Testament nannte er ihn dann "mein Kanzler". The 430,000 armed men in Germany competed for the limited places. in Saint-Germain-en-Laye† 01.09.1715 LUDWIG XIV. [170] Schäffer told Hindenburg: We reject the notion that millions of Germans are not to be designated as national. He was promoted to captain in 1878 and assigned to the staff of the Second Army Corps. An Paul von Hindenburg scheiden sich die Geister: Für die einen ist er die Heldengestalt des Ersten Weltkriegs und der vom Volk gewählte Reichspräsident der Weimarer Republik. From Hindenburg's point of view, such an overwhelming triumph could end the war in the Eastern Front. Hindenburg disliked Hitler, but he approved of his efforts to create the volksgemeinschaft. When his reading was finished Hindenburg walked out of the hearings, despite being threatened with contempt, sure that they would not dare charge a war hero. Rather than tell Ebert himself, he directed Groener to deliver the army's recommendation to the president. Hindenburg cut back on public appearances. Hindenburg refused because they did not have the kaiser's permission, instead settling into a humble inn, thereby pleasing both his monarchist staff and the revolutionary masses. He was replaced. The Social Democratic government of the State of Prussia was a caretaker, because it had lost its mandate in the preceding election. Paul Ludwig Hans Anton von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg was born in Posen, Prussia (Polish: Poznań; until 1793 and since 1919 part of Poland[2]), the son of Prussian aristocrat Hans Robert Ludwig von Beneckendorff und von Hindenburg (1816–1902) and his wife Luise Schwickart (1825–1893), the daughter of physician Karl Ludwig Schwickart and wife Julie Moennich. [175], During the summer of 1934, Hindenburg grew increasingly alarmed at Nazi excesses. The Hindenburg-Ludendorff duo's successful performance on the Eastern Front in 1914 marked the beginning of a military and political partnership that lasted until the end of the war. Headquarters moved close to the front and as soon as possible would advance to pre-selected positions in newly occupied ground. Mackensen seized the Romanian forts on the right bank of the Danube, while infantry and cavalry from the Western Front reinforced the Ninth Army in Hungarian Transylvania, which now was commanded by Falkenhayn (another of Hindenburg's prudent selections). Mit einer hervorragend informativen und … Ein gegenseitiges Respektsverhältnis bildete die Grundlage für … Das parlamentarische System – die Parteien der Weimarer Republik. This only brings despondency into our ranks and strengthens the hopes of the enemy. The 1931 budget was then passed easily, and the Reichstag adjourned until October after only increasing the military budget and the subsidies for Junkers in the so-called Osthilfe (Eastern Aid) program. Paul von Hindenburg was born on 2 October 1847 to a family of minor Prussian nobility in Posen. When they broached the march home he took them to the map room, explaining allocation of roads, scheduling unit departures, billeting and feeding. The terms of the Treaty of Versailles were written in secret. While Germans of all political shades cursed the treaty as an insult to the nation's honor, President Ebert was sober enough to consider the possibility that Germany would not be in a position to turn it down. [154] Only the four Social Democrats in the previous cabinet were replaced, forming what the press labeled the "Hindenburg Cabinet", which Dorpalen argues "failed to produce the hoped for turn of events". To save face, he asked Hindenburg whether the army was prepared to defend against an Allied invasion from the west, which Ebert believed would be all but certain if the treaty were voted down. Die erste industrielle Revolution ging in der zweiten Hälfte des 18. Overall, “In a fierce and obstinate conflict on the Somme, which lasted five months, the enemy pressed us back to a depth of about six miles on a stretch of nearly twenty-five miles”[57] Thirteen new divisions were created by reducing the number of men in infantry battalions, and divisions now had an artillery commander. Ludendorff and Bauer wanted to replace both the Kaiser and chancellor by a dictator, but Hindenburg would not agree. Rupprecht was delighted that two such competent men had “replaced the dilettante ′Falkenhayn.”[51] Bauer was impressed that Hindenburg “saw everything only with the eye of the soldier.”[52]. [44] Wilson insisted that the kaiser must go, but he refused to abdicate, he was determined to lead the Prussian Army home to suppress the growing rebellion, which had started with large demonstrations in major cities and then, when the navy ordered a sortie to battle the British, mutineers led by workers' and soldiers' councils took control of the navy, these councils spread rapidly throughout Germany. He favored staff officers above line officers and the proportion of nobles was the same as prewar. By the second quarter of 1917, Hindenburg and Ludendorff were able to assemble 680,000 more men in 53 new divisions[68] and provide them with an adequate supply of new light machine guns. Ein seit 55 Jahren vergessenesStandbild von Reichspräsident Paul von Hindenburg (1847-1934) ist amKyffhäuserberg entdeckt worden. For Ludendorff Amiens was the "black day in the history of the German Army". When Hitler moved to eject Hugenberg from the cabinet and to suppress the political parties, a trusted colleague of Hugenberg's was sent to Neudeck to appeal for assistance but only met with Oskar. The attack was launched on 7 February whereby Hindenburg's forces encircled an entire corps and captured more than 100,000 men in the Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes. Reichspräsident Ebert died on 28 February 1925 following an appendectomy. The industrialists opposed Groener's advocacy of an excess profits tax and insistence that workers take a part in company management. "[172] An Enabling Act was prepared that transferred law-making from the Reichstag to the government, even if the new laws violated the constitution. A week later the anticipated French offensive began, driving northward from the Aisne River, after six days of intensive shelling their infantry was led forward by 128 tanks, the first attack by massed tanks. "[122] (Despite what his intimates knew of his "deep knowledge of Prussian political life". "[102] His staff intended to billet him in the kaiser's palace there, Wilhelmshöhe. In June the Austro-Hungarians in Italy attacked the Entente lines along the Piave River but were repelled decisively. Hundreds of thousands of men were needed to hold and police these conquests. Paul von Hindenburg entstammte väterlicherseits einem alten ostpreußischen Adelsgeschlecht, der Familie von Hindenburg. Falter, Jürgen W. "The Two Hindenburg Elections of 1925 and 1932: A Total Reversal of Voter Coalitions", Menge, Anna. Trotzdem vertrat er später die Dolchstoßlegende.Die vereinigten Rechtsparteien stellten ihn nach dem Tode FRIEDRICH EBERTS 1925 für die Reichspräsidentenwahl auf. 1849), Ida (b. For other uses, see. His dwindling stock of horses were on the verge of starvation and his ragged men thought continually of food. Meissner was kept on temporarily. In 1873 he passed in the highly competitive entrance examination for admission to the Kriegsakademie in Berlin[8] After three years of study, his grades were high enough for an appointment with the General Staff. He then had the cabinet pass the "Law Concerning the Highest State Office of the Reich," which stipulated that upon Hindenburg's death, the office of president would be abolished and its powers merged with those of the Chancellor under the title of Führer und Reichskanzler (Leader and Chancellor of the Reich). He made few formal public appearances, but the streets around his house often were crowded with admirers when he took his afternoon walk.

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